EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE – After a year of ground tests, a laser weapon is approaching performance levels capable of destroying an enemy missile in flight, defense officials said. If the military can get the weapon to work well enough for service, it will be installed into a highly modified Boeing 747-400 freighter. The laser would then be tested against actual missiles. “Our goal is shoot down a boosting ballistic missile over the Pacific Ocean in late 2008,” said Air Force Col. John Daniels, program director. “The missile will be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base into the Pacific Test Range, where we will engage it.” The Missile Defense Agency’s Airborne Laser program is testing its chemical oxygen iodine laser at a laboratory at Edwards. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week “The goal, which we hope to achieve by the end of 2005, is to consistently reach long-duration, full-power firing,” Daniels said. “I can’t give you exact figures, but it will be sufficient to destroy a missile from hundreds of miles away.” Program officials envision future Airborne Laser aircraft patrolling in pairs at more than 40,000 feet and inside friendly territory, scanning the horizon for missiles. When a missile is detected, a set of lasers will track and illuminate it, and computers will measure the distance and calculate its course and direction. A second high-energy laser, fired in a three- to five-second burst through the nose turret mounted on the 747, will destroy the missile. The laser is comprised of six modules, each weighing 4,500 pounds and about the size of a sport utility vehicle turned on its end. The beam will heat an area about the diameter of a basketball on the missile’s relatively fragile fuel-tank casing. The laser will weaken metal already under high pressure from the ignited rocket fuel. The aircraft that will carry the test laser completed a series of flight tests at Edwards in July and is now in Wichita, Kan., undergoing modifications to its aft section to prepare it for the installation. The beginning of the laser installation is more than a year away, since the modules have to be dismantled and removed from the laboratory at Edwards. The illuminator lasers also are being installed in Wichita. Those lasers will be tested on the ground and in the air before the aircraft returns to Edwards, Daniels said. “In 2008 we will be flight testing the entire weapon system,” Daniels said. Jim Skeen, (661) 267-5743 [email protected] 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
Gardaí are investigating after a 3.5KVA petrol generator was stolen from a barge near the slipway at the Quay in Ramelton on Wednesday last. The incident is understood to have occurred between the hours of 1.30am and 6am on October 2nd.No suspect information has been released. If anyone can offer any information in relation to this theft or if anyone comes across a similar generator for sale then please contact Gardaí in Milford on 074-9153060.Gardaí search for suspects following generator theft in Ramelton was last modified: October 8th, 2019 by Shaun KeenanShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
“Evolution by Mistake” is the headline of an article about evolution on Science Daily. Can the protagonists get mistakes to create eyes, wings, and brains? The rest of the headline reads: “Major Driving Force Comes from How Organisms Cope With Errors at Cellular Level.” Right off the bat, a tension seems set up between errors, which are directionless and purposeless, and how organisms cope with them, which at first glance seems a matter of design and purpose (as in a corporate security policy or anti-virus software). But this is not an appeal to intelligent design. “Charles Darwin based his groundbreaking theory of natural selection on the realization that genetic variation among organisms is the key to evolution,” the opening sentence declared. The tip of the hat to Darwin means they intend to explain all of the wonders of the living world by descent with modification from bacteria to man. Can they pull it off with “evolution by mistake”? Like Darwin, Joanna Masel and Etienne Rajon at University of Arizona (smiling at the whiteboard in a photo), recognize the exquisite adaptation of organisms to their environment. “But exactly how nature creates variation in the first place still poses somewhat of a puzzle to evolutionary biologists,” the article admitted. That may appear strange to readers who thought Darwin or the neo-Darwinists had that issue wrapped up long ago. Masel and Rajon “discovered the ways organisms deal with mistakes that occur while the genetic code in their cells is being interpreted greatly influences their ability to adapt to new environmental conditions – in other words, their ability to evolve.” They are implying that ability to evolve will lead to innovation (wings, eyes, brains), because later, the phrase “how nature creates innovation” appears. Can they get from errors to innovation? If so, they need to do it without personifying evolution, so readers had best forgive this line that mixes up personified evolution with intelligent design: “Evolution needs a playground in order to try things out,” Masel said “It’s like in competitive business: New products and ideas have to be tested to see whether they can live up to the challenge.”Overlooking that slip, they delved into the details of their idea:In nature, it turns out, many new traits that, for example, enable their bearers to conquer new habitats, start out as blunders: mistakes made by cells that result in altered proteins with changed properties or functions that are new altogether, even when there is nothing wrong with the gene itself. Sometime later, one of these mistakes can get into the gene and become more permanent.Keep your eyes on the ball. The reader wants to see innovation, like an eye, or a wing, or a brain, where it didn’t exist before. So far we have blunders that alter proteins. The gene was fine, but something happened downstream. “Sometime later, one of these mistakes can get back into the gene,” they claimed. Any evidence? None in the article. They next distinguished between global and local solutions. The global solution, they said, is “to avoid making errors in the first place, for example by having a proofreading mechanism to spot and fix errors as they arise.” Something “watches over the entire process,” they said, begging the question again of how an entire process that watches for errors and fixes them could itself be a product of mistakes. Regardless, global solutions are about preserving integrity of the genome, not innovating wings, eyes, and brains. Innovation will have to be local:The alternative is to allow errors to happen, but evolve robustness to the effects of each of them. Masel and Rajon call this strategy a local solution, because in the absence of a global proofreading mechanism, it requires an organism to be resilient to each and every mistake that pops up. “We discovered that extremely small populations will evolve global solutions, while very large populations will evolve local solutions,” Masel said. “Most realistically sized populations can go either direction but will gravitate toward one or the other. But once they do, they rarely switch, even over the course of evolutionary time.”This paragraph is full of strategy – another ostensibly purposeful concept. If an organism has a strategy to allow some errors to creep in, but then “evolve robustness” to their effects, did that strategy itself evolve by mistake? They didn’t say. Next, they introduced a contrast between “regular variation, which is generally bad most of the time, since the odds of a genetic mutation leading to something useful or even better are pretty slim,” (see online book for calculation), “and what they call cryptic variation, which is less likely to be deadly, and more likely to be mostly harmless.” Even so, a poison pill and a placebo are not likely to produce wings, eyes, and brains. If you have an antidote to the poison pill, or a process to avoid swallowing it in the first place, it won’t kill you, but the placebo (cryptic variation), even if it is “mostly harmless,” contains no power to innovate. You are not likely to get a third eye from it. So how does cryptic variation work and why is it so important for understanding evolution? By allowing for a certain amount of mistakes to occur instead of quenching them with global proofreading machinery, organisms gain the advantage of allowing for what Masel calls pre-selection: It provides an opportunity for natural selection to act on sequences even before mutations occur.The critical reader of this paragraph is going to want to know not just whether their theory can produce innovation from mistakes, but how their theory itself arose from mistakes. In other words, they talked about cryptic variation working, about importance, about understanding, about strategies of allowing some mistakes but not others – who or what decides? They swept right past the question of how “global proofreading machinery” could ever arise from mistakes, to the grand fallacy (see Weinberg’s Corollary) of pre-selection as “an opportunity for natural selection to act”. Is natural selection a person? Does it have a plan? How would natural selection have any precognition of the need for an eye, a wing, or a brain? A mistake that leads to a misfolded protein, they admitted, could be “very toxic to the organism.” Creationists would agree that “In this case of a misfolded protein, selection would favor mutations causing that genetic sequence to not be translated into protein or it would favor sequences in which there is a change so that even if that protein is made by accident, the altered sequence would be harmless.” Purifying selection (eliminating mistakes) and compensating selection (tolerating mistakes) are not controversial: unless you avoid taking the poison pill, or have no antidote, you die without passing on your genes. Having those protections still won’t give you a wing, an eye, or a brain. But if you just had the opportunity to get them, wouldn’t you want them?“Pre-selection puts that cryptic variation in a state of readiness,” Masel said. “One could think of local solutions as natural selection going on behind the scenes, weeding out variations that are going to be catastrophic, and enriching others that are only slightly bad or even harmless.” “Whatever is left after this process of pre-selection has to be better,” she pointed out. “Therefore, populations relying on this strategy have a greater capability to evolve in response to new challenges. With too much proofreading, that pre-selection can’t happen.”Masel’s wording recalls Darwin’s personified depiction of his theory: “Natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers, at the improvement of each organic being in relation to its organic and inorganic conditions of life.” But even Darwin might have balked at the idea of pre-selection, that natural selection would keep harmless variations in a junkyard for scrutinizing later. Masel argued that “the organism doesn’t pay a large cost for it, but it’s still there if it needs it.” How big a junkyard can an organism afford to keep around? Masel and Rajon recognized the cost of error correction:Avoiding or fixing errors comes at a cost, they pointed out. If it didn’t, organisms would have evolved nearly error-free accuracy in translating genetic information into proteins. Instead, there is a trade-off between the cost of keeping proteins free of errors and the risk of allowing potentially deleterious mistakes.The accuracy of error correction is indeed surprisingly high, but there is also a cost of hanging onto useless junk. All the junk has to be copied every time a cell divides, and transported in a dynamic environment where the need to eat, eliminate, defend and adapt are ever present. It may be that some organisms carrying around huge genomes are at a disadvantage and are headed for extinction. Maybe they still need time to sift through their junk for parts of eyes, wings, and brains. The authors ended on a biomimetic theme. Engineers, too, may want to imitate the practice of evolution by mistake:“We find that biology has a clever solution. It lets lots of ideas flourish, but only in a cryptic form and even while it’s cryptic, it weeds out the worst ideas. This is an extremely powerful and successful strategy. I think companies, governments, economics in general can learn a lot on how to foster innovation from understanding how biological innovation works.Most entrepreneurs, while admitting the value of brainstorming, trial and error, and even “evolutionary algorithms” (10/04/2005, 04/18/2009) will recognize that what they do has purpose and intent. The same cannot be said of mistakes in yeast cells that Masel and Rajon studied.It might be said in the authors’ defense that the popular press had to oversimplify and personify their ideas for the lay public; the original paper in PNAS is where the goods are.1 A look at the abstract, though, shows a strong requirement: “The local solution requires powerful selection acting on every cryptic site and so evolves only in large populations.” Yet the local solution is the only one pregnant with innovating potential, because “Strongly deleterious effects can be avoided globally by avoiding making errors (e.g., via proofreading machinery) or locally by ensuring that each error has a relatively benign effect.” If large populations with mistakes of “relatively benign effect” is the best one can hope for, will wings, eyes, and brains follow? In the body of the paper, the words innovate or innovation are nowhere to be found. The stem improve is only found in reference to “improved proofreading machinery,” which they assume already existed. There are equations about fitness, but with apparently no linkage to innovation: “components of fitness associated, respectively, with the expression of cryptic sequences, with deleterious sequences becoming permanently expressed through new mutations and with the cost of proofreading during protein synthesis.” But cryptic sequences, remember, are only variations that do not kill the organism. They are mistakes that are tolerated and kept in store. Other mentions of fitness concern deleterious mutations, loss of function, and null fitness, except where additive fitness is offered hopefully: “Fitness in the additive scenario depends on the total concentration of all deleterious products within the cell and on their toxicity.” It sounds more like a bomb shelter than a lab for innovation. The authors use fitness primarily as a measure of mutations that assimilate in a population without getting edited out. The last paragraph sums it up:Our core result is that a solution acting at many sites at once evolves in small populations, and local solutions at each independent site evolve in large populations, whereas either outcome is possible in populations of intermediate size. Local solutions, associated with large populations, have both higher mean fitness and greater evolvability.Again, though, the authors never linked “higher mean fitness” with anything better than assimilation of harmless mutations. In fact, what they present as a “positive feedback loop” is merely a loophole for mutations to escape the scrutiny of the editing machines: “This positive feedback loop between accuracy and the proportion of cryptic sequences that are strongly deleterious would ultimately lead to the evolution of an infinitely small error rate if avoiding errors did not come at a cost, resulting in a trade-off between the cost of expressing deleterious sequences and the cost of accuracy.” Tolerance for harmless mutations was never linked to the innovation of wings, eyes, or brains, or anything even simply adding a new function to a cell – no matter how small – except for one vague reference in a table to “subfunctionalization” (split of functions between copies)2 or “neofunctionalization” (no examples provided; cf. 10/24/2003). Apparently, then, all the authors hope for is the opportunity for evolution to work its magic (see 01/23/2011): “The local solution facilitates the genetic assimilation of cryptic genetic variation and therefore substantially increases evolvability” – i.e., the opportunity to innovate. But they cannot assume that evolvability entails the ability to innovate new organs of extreme perfection without begging the very question Darwin’s original idea proposed 150 years ago.3 They lead the reader to hope that evolution may “tinker” with the assimilated junk: “cryptic sequences that are not strongly deleterious may tinker with rather than destroy function and so contribute to adaptation.”1. Etienne Rajon and Joanna Masel, “Evolution of molecular error rates and the consequences for evolvability,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online before print January 3, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1012918108 PNAS January 3, 2011.2. On subfunctionalization, see 06/20/2005, 07/26/2006, 10/17/2007, and 01/03/2011. Note that the word neofunctionalization begs the question whether natural selection is capable of producing new function. 3. For previous attempts to explain “evolvability,” see 08/04/2004, 10/04/2005, 10/16/2006 bullet 3, 02/05/2007, 10/17/2007 bullet 4, 03/20/2008 commentary, 02/18/2009, and 01/05/2010.It may seem like this long entry was like a cruel cat playing with its captive mouse, or the hangman letting the victim draw his own rope, but it was necessary to give them all the space they wanted before showing there is no escape. They chose to bounce on the cat’s paws; they built their own gallows. We wanted them to have the space to make their case and try to escape, but they should have known it was doomed from the start. Can you get wings, eyes, and brains by mistake? Intuitively, none of us could ever believe that. Yet academia presents that weird idea as unquestionable scientific truth. OK, give it your best shot. Here you had it – one of the most optimistic explications of evolutionary innovation you could ever find, by trained Darwin Party sophists, letting us all know why our intuitions are misguided. And all they could do was tell us the old “If you build it, they will come” theory of evolution (03/29/2007, 10/31/2010, 11/29/2010 commentaries). Merely give Tinker Bell the tools (08/30/2006, 11/29/2010), and wings, eyes, and brains are sure to follow. Impressed by the song and dance? This series of remakes about evolvability is like American Idol with never a star. It didn’t help change the judges’ decision when they tiptoed offstage with a little biomimetics flower toss. Entrepreneurs, before taking their business advice, realize that this weird science show would probably never have been produced without your tax money from the National Institutes of Health. The government always has your business interest in mind.(Visited 18 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Ohio Soybean Council Foundation (OSCF) is pleased to announce scholarship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students for the 2017-2018 academic year.The scholarship program encourages undergraduate and graduate students at Ohio colleges and universities to pursue degrees in one of the many academic fields that support the future of the soybean industry including agriculture, business, communication, economics, education, engineering, science and technology.“In order to ensure the future prosperity of the U.S. soybean industry, it is important that students understand the wide variety of opportunities available in agricultural careers,” said Bill Bateson, OSCF scholarship selection committee member and soybean farmer from Hancock County. “The agriculture workforce hires the best of the best and we want to support those who have an interest in starting careers in agriculture after graduation.”The 2017-2018 academic year also marks the 10th anniversary for the OSCF scholarship program. Since 2008, the OSCF scholarship program has awarded $266,000 in scholarship funds to 65 students studying agriculture or a related field at Ohio colleges or universities.There are a total of nine undergraduate scholarships available, including seven general scholarships of up to $3,000 each that will be awarded to students pursuing an eligible major.Available to one undergraduate student is the $5,000 Bhima Vijayendran Scholarship, named to honor Dr. Vijayendran’s contributions to the soybean industry through his scientific research of new uses for soybeans and commercialization activities at Battelle. This scholarship was founded to support those pursuing a degree related to science, technology or soybean research.Also available to one undergraduate student pursuing agricultural business or communications is the $3,000 Farmer, Lumpe and McClelland Excellence in Communications Scholarship. This scholarship was founded to provide resources to young people with a passion for agricultural and business communication.Undergraduate scholarship applicants must be Ohio residents and enrolled as full-time students at an Ohio college or university. The applicant must have attained at least sophomore status by fall 2017 with a grade point average of 3.0 or higher.Eligible majors include biology, biochemistry, bioengineering, molecular biology, chemistry, engineering, biotechnology, bioenergy, biofuels, food science, crop science, environmental science, agricultural communications, agricultural business, agricultural education or any of the agricultural disciplines or related fields.Three scholarships of up to $5,000 each are available to graduate students who are enrolled as a full-time student at an Ohio college or university and have proof of legal residency in the United States.Applicants must be conducting research in bioproducts, biobased materials, biotechnology, bioengineering, biopolymers or a related field, and focused on advancing the soybean industry.The deadline for undergraduate and graduate applications is January 13, 2017. All OSCF scholarships will be competitively awarded with funds paid directly to the educational institution. Scholarships are not renewable, although recipients may reapply. For more information and to download the scholarship applications, visit the Ohio Soybean Council Foundation at www.soyohio.org/scholarship.
marshall kirkpatrick Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Real-time web protocol PubSubHubbub’s co-creator Brett Slatkin, an engineer at Google, gave a talk at Facebook headquarters today about how the new information delivery system works and how Facebook can support it. He’s published his deck on his blog and we’ve embedded it below as our Real-Time Web Article of the Day. If you’re interested in making your content available in real time or more efficiently using real-time content syndicated from elsewhere, this presentation is a must-see.Each day leading up to the ReadWrite Real-Time Web Summit on October 15th we’re highlighting one important article written by someone from outside our staff on the topic of the real-time web. Slatkin’s 61-slide deck makes a great introduction to both the technical and strategic aspects of the PubSubHubbub protocol. Those are just a few of our favorite slides, below is the whole presentation embedded. Please check it out and consider joining us at the ReadWrite Real-Time Web Summit to discuss this and other real-time technologies and their implications. Slatkin starts out by explaining the value propositions of real-time data delivery, with an emphasis on social networking because he’s speaking at Facebook. He then goes on to discuss how PubSubHubbub works and how to implement it. He also spends several slides discussing what he considers the technical shortcomings of other real-time protocols, particularly RSSCloud, but that’s only a small part of the talk.Slatkin will be participating in the Real-Time Web Summit next month. (“Foo-style [unconferencing is] always way better than talks,” he said last week “See ya there!”) He’s got a very big vision of where all this is going to go; he’s thinking of things like distribution of financial information and data from sensor networks in the physical world. This isn’t just about social networking, and it certainly isn’t just about Twitter, though that’s what most people tend to think of when they hear the phrase real-time web. There’s a whole lot more to it than that, as you can see from the list of questions some of our event participants have already said they want to discuss.Here’s what Slatkin has to say, a few of our favorite early slides are excerpted above the embedded slideshow in order to convince our subscribers to click through to the site and read the presentation.What is PubSubHubbub?Some of the BenefitsIt’s hard to explain “flow,” of course – you know it when you see it. Others in the industry have described increased time-on-site for website visitors, or a more human and people-centric experience of the web. The list of possibilities is endless and Slatkin encourages developers to “scale up to new use cases” – meaning that building real-time to scale will enable new activities that we can’t imagine yet.On Decentralization and Design A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Tags:#Real-Time Web#web Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market
Massive Non-Desk Workforce is an Opportunity fo… 3 Areas of Your Business that Need Tech Now klint finley Tags:#Analysis#enterprise IT + Project Management: A Love Affair ESET also fired back at NSS, claiming that NSS’s report didn’t comply with two of the Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization’s Fundamental Principles of Testing. ESET also complained that NSS did not provide access to samples used in its testing.Since NSS has moved ESET out of “caution” category in the newest report, we asked ESET if it had made any changes to its product to improve its ratings with NSS. “ESET was unable to get any useful feedback on its performance in the previous test without paying a substantial sum to NSS for ‘consultancy,’” replied David Harley, ESET Research Fellow & Director of Malware Intelligence via e-mail. “Even when ESET offered to pay the agreed-upon sum, the fee kept escalating. To this day, information on the test samples has never been supplied, so we are unable to assess the competence and validity of the test, let alone make any changes that would impact our performance in the more recent test.”Moy answered critics on the NSS blog. First, he addressed AVG’s objections. Moy disputed AVG’s claims that NSS withheld information and points out that the methodology and steps for reproducing its Aurora testing was available in the published report. He provided a video showing AVG 9 failing to protect against the Aurora exploit, and pointed out that the screenshot AVG provided depicted Firefox, even though Aurora was an Internet Explorer virus.In a post seemingly in response to ESET, Moy wrote:Some vendors used the anti-malware testing standards organization (AMTSO) to try to discredit the test. One of their objections was that we recommend against buying products that scored on the bottom third of our test. Sorry, we unabashedly believe malware protection should indeed be the key purchasing criteria for an AV product. And for vendors who claim their anti-spam on the corporate desktop will improve their protection against socially-engineered malware hosted on web sites, that’s just stretching it.Moy told us that all the NSS test methodology is available for free on the company’s web site and that ESET was mostly upset NSS didn’t release its malware sample set. Although NSS has received money from vendors for past tests, and does do security consulting, Phatak told us NSS did not receive money from Trend Micro or McAfee before the tests were conducted.ConclusionScience is about repeatable, verifiable results. The only way to glean a better understanding of the efficacy of various endpoint protection products is for more labs to employ cutting edge testing methodologies. The more tests released in the future, the more information enterprises will have in making informed decisions. Related Posts This week NSS Labs released their Q2 2010 Corporate Endpoint Protection Products report. NSS has only publicly announced the two products it specifically recommends against: Panda‘s Internet Security 2010 (Enterprise) and AVG‘s Internet Security Business Edition 9. However, it takes only a quick look at Trend Micro’s web site to guess how NSS rated Office Scan (hint: very well). Some vendors have protested NSS’s ratings in the past, but like it or not NSS is changing the way security testing is conducted.As security threats evolve, e-mail has been displaced by the Web as the primary delivery mechanism for malicious code. The old model of virus definition based antivirus software has been increasingly called into question. In 2007, Australia’s Computer Emergency Response Teamclaimed that leading products missed 80% of new viruses. To compensate, companies like Trend Micro and Kaspersky are developing cloud based “reputation services” to evaluate URLs and code.NSS president, and former VP of marketing at antivirus vendor ESET, Rick Moy explained in a phone interview: cybercriminals now typically use social engineering to trick users into downloading malware from web sites and run it voluntarily. Malware creators run “campaigns” on Twitter and other social media sites baiting users with anything from pornography to free iPads.Even the most savvy of users can occasionally be tricked by social engineering – we posted our own list of tech savvy Twitter users who fell for phishing scam last year. For an explanation of how such savvy users get fooled, read Cory Doctorow’s recent Lotus Magazine piece explaining why he fell for a phishing scam.Trend Micro recently published an independent report claiming the IT industry is being lulled into a false sense of security by vendors. The report cites an NSS survey which found half of respondents thought their antivirus solutions would protect them from threats 100% of the time, and that another 10% of respondents thought their solutions would protect them 99% of the time.Moy says there’s also a perception in the enterprise that anti-malware products are essentially interchangeable, but that’s turning out not be the case: NSS’s testing found wild disparities between the efficacy of different products, and found that a company’s previous track record is no indication of how well it will perform.NSS tests differ from most other testers, such as AV-Comparatives for example, in that NSS’s test computers that are actually connected to the Internet – something the company calls “live testing.” NSS tested PCs, running up-to-date copies of Windows 7 and using Internet Explorer 8 with SmartScreen disabled, by visiting known malicious sites to verify whether each product tested could successfully blocks malware from being downloaded and/or executed.According to Moy, typical testing involves using malware sets from Wildlist or Antivirus Bulletin – both of which use samples provided by the antivirus protection industry, some of which might be quite old. The results of AV-Comparatives’ most recent report, its “Retrospective/Proactive Test,” are radically different from NSS’s. Trend Micro did fairly poorly in this test, while Panda did quite well. AVG out performed Trend Micro. Peter Stelzhammer of AV-Comparatives confirmed via e-mail that the NSS and AV-Comparatives tests are not comparable, and that AV-Comparatives is working on a test similar to NSS’s. Cognitive Automation is the Immediate Future of… A consensus is forming in the security industry that there’s a need for new prevention techniques – and new testing methodologies to evaluate those techniques. The need for new testing methodologies was the theme of the “Measuring The Actual Security Anti-Virus Products Provide Customers” panel at SOURCE 2010 Boston in May, which included Stelzhammer, NSS CEO Vik Phatak, and representatives from CheckVir Labs, Dennis Technology Labs, PC Security Labs and West Coast Labs. Stelzhammer detailed the difficulties involved in doing live, Internet-connected testing and explained the methodologies for AV-Comparatives’ future NSS-like tests. AV-Test has released a test based on methodologies similar to NSS’s, with comparable results. According to the report published by Trend Micro: “ICSA and others such as Virus Bulletin state they will be evolving their certification practices in coming months to include real-time testing and/or testing against today’s threats.”NSS has a recent history of raising eyebrows in the security industry.In March of 2009 NSS published the results of a Microsoft sponsored test that found Internet Explorer 8 was more effective in blocking malicious web sites than Firefox, Safarai, Chrome, and Opera. This lead to many skeptical articles and accusations of bias. However, when looking at what was actually being tested, the results aren’t particularly radical: NSS found that Microsoft’s blacklist blocked more sites than the blacklists used by other browsers. NSS was not tested for other browser vulnerabilities.In September 2009, Network World reported that NSS was shifting its focus towards conducting self-funded tests instead of vendor sponsored tests. NSS would sell the reports and consult vendors, but would not take money for testing.One of NSS’s first self-funded tests found 3com TippingPoint 10 firewall to be deficient. Moy told TechWorld he thought that Tipping Point must not have been investing enough in improving its products. Some commenters were, shall we say, skeptical about NSS’s rating.That same month, NSS released its first Corporate Endpoint Protection Products test, unfunded and using its new live testing methodology. It ranked AVG, Panda and Moy’s former employers ESET at the bottom of the heap. It gave top marks to Trend Micro.In March of this year NSS released a free report detailing the failure of many commercial products to defeat variants of the infamous Aurora virus that infected Google’s computers. McAfee was the only product NSS tested that successfully blocked variants of the virus, and NSS found AVG was the only product tested that didn’t block the original exploit.In an entry on the company blog, AVG protested the results of the Aurora test and called a few things into question. It noted that the report initially indicated that NSS had tested AVG 8 instead of the newer AVG 9, and that NSS later claimed this was a typo and that it had tested version 9. AVG also claimed NSS gave them different information about the results of the testing before the publication of the report and that NSS was slow providing methodology before publication. AVG also provided a screenshot showing AVG blocking the Aurora virus.
In this walkthrough, we’ll look at how to optimize your editing workflow — and which settings to check if Premiere Pro is running slow.Laggy playback is probably the most frequent complaint from Premiere Pro users. I recently completed a deep-dive into Adobe’s Premiere Pro troubleshooting pages and their community forums, and I’ve complied a list of solutions that you can try if Premiere Pro is lagging.It’s important to remain realistic about your computer’s hardware and specs. (Especially when it comes to editing 4K video or videos with lots of effects.) Also, if you’re in the middle of a project, I strongly recommend against updating any Adobe CC apps until you’ve finished. Updating Adobe CC apps in the middle of a project is asking for trouble. (If you do update them, at least don’t uninstall the previous CC versions.)We’re going to cover settings and general workflow tips that should improve your Premiere Pro experience.Quickest Solutions for the Most ImprovementIf you’re in a hurry to find out why Premiere Pro is running slow, these four solutions typically offer the most dramatic speed improvement.Turn on GPU AccelerationUnder Project Settings, make sure the Renderer is set to GPU Acceleration. If the GPU Acceleration option is grayed out, you may need to update your graphics card drivers. If you update them, and the option is still grayed out, Premiere Pro may not support your graphics card.Make certain the Renderer is set to GPU Acceleration.Lower Playback ResolutionThis one seems pretty obvious, but it’ll make a drastic difference if you lower the playback resolution. Adjust the setting to 1/2 or 1/4 in the bottom-right corner of the Preview Window.It’s important to lower playback resolution.You can also make sure High Quality Playback is disabled. Click on the Wrench icon right next to the Resolution setting, and then make sure High Quality Playback is unchecked.Purge Media Cache FilesSometimes old cache files can be the culprit. Navigate to Media Cache in Preferences. Then select Delete Unused.Make sure you delete unused media cache files.Save Cache Files to a Secondary SSDFinally, it’s also recommended to save your media cache files and scratch disk files to a secondary drive — preferably an internal SSD — for the best playback performance. In fact, Puget Systems claims this is the number one thing you can do to increase performance with Premiere Pro. If you have to use an external SSD, make sure it’s rated for USB 3.0 and you have it plugged into a USB 3.0 port. (USB 3.0 is usually indicated with the color blue on the port or connector.)To change the cache file location, navigate to Media Cache in Preferences.In Preferences, scroll down to Media Cache to change the cache file location.To change the scratch disk file location, navigate to Scratch Disks under Project Settings. (Note that you will need to set the Scratch Disks settings for every new project you work on. Premiere Pro doesn’t save that Project Setting location like it does for Media Cache files.)Under Project Settings, navigate to Scratch Disks in order to change the scratch disk’s file location.Settings to CheckHere’s a list of other settings you may want to change in Premiere Pro for faster playback. Experiment with these, as results will vary depending on your workstation.Optimize Rendering for PerformanceUnder Preferences, navigate to Memory and set Optimize Rendering for Performance.Navigate to Memory, then set Optimize Rendering for Performance.Disable Auto SaveFrequent auto saves can sometimes slow down your machine. (For me, auto save usually crashes my Adobe apps more than it actually saves them. But try this recommendation at your own risk!) Navigate to Auto Save under Preferences to turn it off.Turn off auto save to speed up your machine.Disable Mercury TransmitMercury Transmit is typically used to send your preview window to external screens. If you aren’t using one, turn this feature off. Navigate to Playback under Preferences to disable it.Under Playback, disable Mercury Transmit to further quicken the process.Disable Refresh Growing FilesAutomatically Refresh Growing Files is a setting typically used for live broadcast productions. Some Premiere Pro users have reported getting better performance with it turned off. To disable it, navigate to Media under Preferences.Another trick for a better performance, disable Automatically Refresh Growing Files.Check for UpdatesIf your current version of Premiere Pro suddenly becomes laggy, check for updates for your operating system and graphics card. Doing this has frequently helped solve issues for me, as more often than not, there’s an update available. (However, if you’re in the middle of a project and everything is working normal, don’t update anything!)Checking for updates for both your operating system and graphics card can help with a lagging computer.Workflow TipsHere’s a list of practices you can use when editing to optimize your workflow. (And hopefully increase preview speed!)Don’t Edit Files on a Memory CardEven though memory cards are flash memory, they’re not ideal for direct editing. In other words, offload files from your memory card to a separate drive, then edit with those files in Premiere Pro.Use Proxy FilesUsing proxy files when you edit is another technique that’s sure to get you better playback in Premiere Pro. Using proxy files is basically substituting a lower-resolution version of your footage in while you edit. It’ll then switch back to your high-resolution footage when it’s time to render. In this quick tip article, Robbie Janney covers how to create proxies in Premiere Pro.Avoid Editing Files with Compressed CodecsWhile compressed codecs are great for recording or uploading, they aren’t ideal for editing. Compressed codecs, such as H.264, take more time to decompress while editing, so they frequently have laggy playback. Codecs like ProRes, Cineform, and DNxHD are more ideal for editing. Again, an easy way to get around this is to just use proxy files.Render Dynamic Linked CompsIf you have any portion of your video timeline linked to After Effects or another Adobe CC app, you can quickly render and replace those for faster playback. Simply right-click on the Dynamic Linked sections of your edit, then select Render and Replace.For faster playback, use the Render and Replace option.Turn Off Video EffectsMultiple video effects can put a heavy strain on previews, as well. You can try turning off individual effects before you preview, or use the Global FX Mute button to turn off all effects.The Global FX Mute button will turn off effects.If you don’t see the Global FX Mute button in your Preview Window, you can add it by selecting the Plus icon, then drag and drop it into the Preview Window tool bar.Here’s how to add the Global FX Mute button.Close Lumetri ScopesIf you have the Lumetri Scopes panel open, close it up before trying to play back your footage in the timeline.Close the Lumetri Scopes Panel before you play back your footage.Render In to OutIf all else fails, you may just have to set an in-point and an out-point and select Render In and Out under Sequence settings. It’ll take some time to render previews of the footage in your timeline. After which, it should playback in real time, until other changes are made to the edit.Dropped Frame IndicatorPremiere Pro also has a built-in Dropped Frame Indicator that can signal to you if you’re skipping frames during playback. (You’ll likely already be aware of this if you see visible lag during playback.) Click the wrench icon at the bottom right of the Preview Window, then select Show Dropped Frame Indicator. You’ll see a small green dot that’ll turn yellow or red, if there are dropped frames during playback.If you seem to be skipping frames during playback, select the Show Dropped Frame Indicator.Looking for more Premiere Pro tips? Check these out.The Best Video Editing Programs: Final Cut Pro vs Premiere Pro13 FREE Textured Motion Graphics for Premiere ProThe Secret to Working with Motion Blur in Adobe Premiere ProUsing Lighting Effects in Premiere ProPremiere Pro Quick Tip: How to Create Proxies
PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Manny Pacquiao goes hard in sparring as training rolls on for Broner fight “We’re really positive about the next season.”Phoenix was just a run-of-the-mill team in the Philippine and Commissioner’s Cups, but became an instant threat when the mercurial Calvin Abueva arrived in the team via trade with Alaska.Abueva paid instant dividends for the Fuel Masters, delivering a brute physicality for the franchise. He averaged 15.4 points, 9.2 rebounds, 3.2 assists, and 1.3 blocks during the Fuel Masters’ stellar elimination run.Despite the playoff exit, Phoenix has started to build a solid foundation centered around Abueva, Matthew Wright, and Rookie of the Year frontrunner Jason Perkins.Phoenix also added veterans Alex Mallari and Dave Marcelo, who have five titles between them, to bring championship experience to the team.ADVERTISEMENT As early as now, the Fuel Masters are already on the lookout for potential imports to bring them to the next level in the last two conferences.Alas, team manager Paolo Bugia, and alternate governor Atty. Raymond Zorilla traveled to Las Vegas just before Christmas to scout for reinforcements during the NBA G-League Winter Showcase.“It was very enriching for us because we had a lot of choices on who we’ll get as an import but of course Eugene [Phelps] will always be there, knowing him he’s a warrior,” said Alas.“We watched a lot of games, seven games for four days, and we saw a lot of prospects and it’s up to manager Bugia on how we’ll sign them and I’m very positive about it.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? LATEST STORIES SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion MANILA, Philippines—In the past 2017-18 PBA season, Phoenix did exactly what the mythical bird it’s named from does.ADVERTISEMENT Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting After failing to enter the playoffs of the first two conferences, the team channeled its inner phoenix and rose from the ashes to get to its best campaign yet, finishing with an 8-3 record for the second seed in the Governors’ Cup.That fire, however, burned out quickly when the playoff newcomer lost two straight to Meralco in the quarterfinals.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionBut that was still an invaluable experience for the Fuel Masters, who remain in search of the franchise’s first playoff win and head coach Louie Alas said he is positive that his team can be a legit contender this upcoming PBA season.“I have no choice but to believe that we can play at a high level because we’ve beefed up our roster, added players we needed, and we need on the loopholes that need to be fixed,” said Alas in Filipino Sunday at the team’s practice gym at The Upper Deck. Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion MOST READ BREAKING: Corrections officer shot dead in front of Bilibid View comments
TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting The Golden Tigresses will head on to the 2019 tournament without EJ Laure, the Season 77 co-Rookie of the Year with Kath Arado, and Tin Francisco due to injuries but Reyes is confident his team can back from their dreadful Season 80 campaign.UST finished Season 80 with the second-worst record in the league at 4-10, just a couple of games ahead of eighth seed University of the East at 2-12, but Reyes said they can turn things around.“It was really a roller coaster ride on what happened to us last season where we just plummeted,” said Reyes. “We had a lot of unfortunate incidents at the start where we had a couple of injuries so we weren’t able to compete with a full roster.”Alessandrini, who eventually became Season 80’s Rookie of the Year, and libero Rica Rivera both missed several games in 2018 due to injuries and the Golden Tigresses failed to recover from the set back the rest of the year.UST started out the tournament with a pedestrian 2-2 record but lost five straight to practically rule itself out of the Final Four.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Kei Nishikori comes up aces, rolls into 3rd round in Australia Open Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST PLAY LIST 01:00Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss MANILA, Philippines—The UAAP Season 81 women’s volleyball tournament is about to start in a month’s time but University of Santo Tomas still has to finalize its lineup.ADVERTISEMENT SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño Head coach Kung Fu Reyes said only a handful are assured of spots in the Golden Tigresses’ roster with some still being deliberated on.Reyes said Cherry Rondina, Milena Alessandrini, rookie Eya Laure, Dimdim Pacres, and Caitlyn Viray are the ones assured of representing UST in the UAAP while the other players still have to fight for the vacant spots.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool stars“Sisi, Eya, Milena, Dimdim, because we lack players in the wing, and Caitlyn because we don’t have a middle blocker so she’ll become our go-to in that area,” said Reyes in Filipino during the team’s Thursday practice at Quadricentennial Pavilion.“There are three possible rookies who might be included but I really can’t name names for now because there’s still no official lineup yet although we’ve submitted a list to the UAAP already.” “There were a lot of factors but at the end of the day we are the ones responsible for all of these,” said Reyes. “Our campaign this season considerably looks brighter from the one before because the players are healthy, I just wish Tin is here so we can have a full lineup.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? LATEST STORIES LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño View comments