Explore further It was another great year for science, and physics was front and center, as a team at the University of Oxford announced that they may have solved one of the biggest mysteries in modern physics. They came up with a new theory that could explain the missing 95 percent of the cosmos, and in so doing bring balance to the universe. Their theory unites dark matter and dark energy, resulting in a fluid, which they suggest possesses negative mass. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. It was also a pretty big year for space science, as a team with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory announced that they had seen a distant eruption as a black hole destroyed a star. Using data from the NSF Very Long Baseline Array and other radio and infrared telescopes, the researchers found they were able to track two galaxies as they collided approximately 150 million light years away. One of the galaxies, the researchers noted, had at its core, a massive black hole, which tore apart at least one star.Also, it was noted that the moon did something this past year that it had not done in more than 150 years. It experienced three unique celestial events on the same night—January 31st. It was a full moon, was at its closest to Earth and there was also a total lunar eclipse.And a team at the University of Central Florida made waves when they announced that new research they had conducted suggested Pluto should be reclassified as a planet. They suggested that the reasoning behind the decision to declassify Pluto as a planet was not supported by the research literature. They point out that the requirement for a celestial body to “clear” its orbit to be classified as a planet was found in only one document—one from 1802.Also, a combined team from the University of California and the University of Southern Queensland announced that they had identified 121 giant planets that may have habitable moons, greatly extending the list of possible places life could exist. Their findings are expected to play a role in future work as new telescopes are developed that are powerful enough to actually see them.It was a big year for Earth sciences and evolution, too, as a team at the University of Auckland found that a “sinking” Pacific island nation was actually getting bigger. Using satellite images and aerial photographs, the researchers found that eight of Tuvalu’s nine atolls and almost three fourths of its islands had grown larger over the period 1971 to 2014 due to geologic activity, such as volcanos spewing lava.Also, a large team of researchers found evidence that suggested toward the end of the Ice Age, humans witnessed fires larger than the dinosaur killer, thanks to a cosmic impact. They found evidence that the planet was struck by multiple pieces of a disintegrating comet that showered the planet in fireballs, setting off a cataclysmic event that led to an extension of the Ice Age.And a pair of researchers, Mark Stoeckle with Rockefeller University and David Thaler with the University of Basel, conducted a sweeping gene survey that revealed new facets of evolution—such as evidence that far-flung species such as ants, rats and humans are not more likely to become more genetically diverse as time passes, despite logic suggesting it should be so.Also, a team at the University of Kansas conducted a study of fossil and extant bivalves and gastropods and found evidence that suggested evolution might favor ‘survival of the laziest.’ Over the course of five million years, such creatures with higher metabolic rates were found more likely to go extinct.It was also a good year for technology, as a joint team with members from Monash University and the University of Texas discovered an efficient and sustainable way to filter salt and metal ions from water. Using a metal-organic framework, the team created membranes that mimicked the filtering function or “ion selectively” of organic cell membranes, perhaps setting the stage for a new way to filter sea water.An international team of researchers announced that they had developed the world’s fastest camera that can freeze time at 10 trillion frames per second. They achieved this feat improving the image quality of a femtosecond streak camera by adding another camera able to capture a static image, and then applying a Radon transformation.And a team led by Trent University professor Ian Power announced that they had found a way to make a mineral that removes CO2 from the atmosphere. They used polystyrene microspheres as a catalyst to get magnesite to form within 72 days at room temperature, offering a possible way to remove carbon dioxide from the air.It was a good year for general science, as well, as a team of mathematicians at MIT announced that they had solved the age-old spaghetti mystery—if you bend a spaghetti noodle holding it at the ends, can you force it to break into just two pieces? Turns out, the answer is yes, but only if you twist it just right as you are bending it.Richard Jantz with the University of Tennessee announced that he had found forensic evidence during an analysis of bones uncovered on a remote South Pacific island that they were the remains of famed pilot Amelia Earhart. He reexamined measurements carried out on the bones in the 1940s and used a computer program to first determine the gender of remains, and then to show that they were very similar to Earhart’s.And a team from the University of Copenhagen, University College London and the University of Cambridge announced that they had found evidence of bread that predated agriculture by 4,000 years at a dig site in northeastern Jordan. The charred remnant of a flatbread baked by hunter-gatherers represents the oldest evidence of bread-making to date.Also, a team working at a lab at UC Santa Cruz documented paternal transmission of epigenetic memory via sperm in roundworms. They found evidence supporting theories that a father’s experiences prior to conception can influence the health and development of his offspring, and in some cases, their descendants.And a team at the University of Toledo announced that they had discovered the means by which exposure to blue light can speed blindness. They found that blue light from digital devices and also from the sun can transform important retinal molecules into cells that destroy other cells required for vision. The result is the common vision-impairing medical condition macular degeneration.Also, a team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute combined genomics with gene editing to develop a groundcherry that could possibly be used for mainstream farming. They suggest that the wild plant could be the next strawberry. By making it bigger and changing the shape of the plant and the degree of flower production, they took a wild plant rapidly bred one that could produce food for people in many parts of the world.And finally, a trio of researchers from several institutions in the U.S. and Canada found evidence that spaghetti-looking nuclear material beneath the surface of neutron stars might just be the strongest material in the universe. Their simulation showed that the nuclear pasta was 10 billion times harder to break than steel. Gravitational waves provide dose of reality about extra dimensions Also, a team at the University of Chicago suggested that gravitational waves provide a dose of reality about extra dimensions. In their study of data obtained from the team that first reported detecting gravitational waves last year, they found no evidence of extra spatial dimensions in a universe based on gravitational wave data, quashing ideas of a universe with more than three dimensions.And a combined team of researchers working at the LHC on the ATLAS and CMS collaboration announced at this year’s CERN that the long-sought decay of the Higgs boson had been observed. Coming six years after the discovery of the elusive particle, the new observation was found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the quantum field behind the Higgs also gives mass to the bottom quark. This time-lapse video from the NACO instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope in Chile shows stars orbiting the supermassive black hole that lies at the heart of the Milky Way over a period of nearly 20 years. Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO) Also, a team working on the ESO’s Very Large Telescope announced that they had conducted the first successful test of Einstein’s theory of general relativity near a supermassive black hole. The test involved studying the effects predicted by general relativity on the motion of a star as it passed through the extremely strong gravitational field near the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.And a team at Yale announced that they had found signs of a time crystal. Theory has suggested that a form of matter should exist that “ticks” when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse. Physicists have proposed that such a material would be in the form of a time crystal—a type of crystal whose atoms spin periodically in one direction, then change to spin in the opposite direction, a form of ticking.And Einstein was again proved right with evidence from another galaxy, by a team of international astronomers who conducted the most precise test yet of gravity outside of our solar system. Using data from Hubble and the ESO VLT, the researchers were able to use a nearby galaxy as a lens to conduct very precise gravitational tests on an astronomical scale—showing on a new scale that massive objects do indeed deform space-time. © 2018 Science X Network Citation: Best of Last Year—The top Phys.org articles of 2018 (2018, December 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-yearthe-articles.html Dark matter map of KiDS survey region (region G12). Credit: KiDS survey
Cover story: a new milestone in organic luminescent labeling. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310 Left: Dynamics of emerging and disappearing phosphorescence. (A) Normalized phosphorescent intensity of freshly prepared samples as a function of illumination time for different UV intensities ranging from 0.1 to 7.0 mW cm−2. (B) Illumination intensity dependences of required time to reach 50% of total phosphorescent emission. (C) Normalized phosphorescence as a function of storage time for two different film thicknesses, 600 nm (light red circles) and 35 to 40 μm (dark red squares), stored and measured under ambient conditions. The emission increase at the beginning is reproducible and under further investigation. (D) Normalized phosphorescence as a function of heating time. Right: Coatings on different substrates. (A) Flexible luminescent tag realized by spin-coating the emitting layer in between two barrier films in ambient light and showing written phosphorescence. (B) Flexible adhesive tag applied to a cylindrical glass bottle and containing information about the content, readable by eye and any quick response (QR) detector, and fully invisible when not read out. (C) Conventional monochrome photograph of the NYC skyline coated by drop-casting the emitting layer in between two barrier layers showing a programmable luminescent caption. (D) Transmission of an emitting layer similar to the one on top of the photo in (C) compared to 1-mm pure glass. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310. The scientists observed long-lasting, room-temperature phosphorescence due to moderate spin orbit coupling and dense packing of the PMMA polymers in the absence of oxygen. Analogously, to prevent the exposure of the phosphorescence emitting layer to oxygen, Gmelch et al. deposited a 600 nm thick oxygen-barrier-layer on top of the sample. However, since the scientists fabricated the samples under ambient conditions, the emitting layer contained molecular oxygen. Invisible tags: Physicists write, read and erase using light Energetic scheme, device structure, and emission with and without oxygen quenching. (A) Electron excitation by UV light to the excited singlet state S1 of NPB with following fluorescence or ISC to the excited triplet state T1. (B) NPB T1 state depopulation in the presence of oxygen via triplet-triplet interaction with molecular oxygen and therefore excited singlet oxygen generation. (C) Blue fluorescent emission in continuous wave (CW) excitation, no delayed phosphorescence in the presence of oxygen. (Photo credit: F.F., Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials). (D) Device structure. The emitting- and barrier-layer thicknesses are 900 and 600 nm, respectively. (E) NPB T1 state depopulation without surrounding oxygen via visible phosphorescence with a lifetime of τ = 406 ms. (F) Blue fluorescent emission in continuous wave excitation and delayed response in the absence of oxygen. Greenish-yellow phosphorescence is visible. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310 , Nature Explore further After excitation with UV light (365 nm wavelength), the NPB molecules reached their excited singlet state (S1), from which they either decayed back to the ground state to emit fluorescence, or populated the excited triple state T1 through intersystem crossing (a radiationless process of transition between two electronic states with different spin). The observed experimental energy levels fit well with values in the literature. A promising approach for light-based labeling involves the local removal of molecular oxygen using UV irradiation. However, this technique has only been reported in solution thus far. In the present work, Gmelch et al. implemented the technique on the fabricated thin solid film. In this case, the scientists experimentally excited the NPB emitter to the triplet state (T1) from which they were quenched by interacting with the triplet ground state of molecular oxygen (T0). By design, the resulting excited singlet oxygen density decreased by interacting with the local environment of the emitter, i.e. via PMMA material oxidation at the spots of illumination, giving rise to phosphorescence. The emission was immediately visible for a long lifetime of τ = 406 ms, after switching off the UV illumination. The process described by Gmelch et al. thus activated luminescence for the first time by removing oxygen from inside a thin film. They used the technology of UV light-dependent oxygen consumption as a writing tool to create an image on a substrate/material. Image writing using UV light. By masked UV illumination of the sample, a phosphorescent pattern is printed into the transparent sample. Here, pulsed excitation with a frequency of 1 Hz is used. When taking only one video frame during the off-time of the excitation, the emergence of the phosphorescence is clearly visible. The time delay of each frame to the corresponding switch-off is held constant. The playback speed is accelerated by a factor of 10. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310. , Journal of Chemical Education Luminescent emission in the form of phosphorescence commonly occurs in daily life as a result of a quantum mechanically small transition probability. A luminescent emission lifetime can last from microseconds to several hours. Popularly known for its use in glow-in-the-dark products and as emergency sign illuminants in public buildings, it is also a practical method for information storage, including stamp detection and verification. While easy and cost-effective fabrication methods presently exist to engineer phosphorescence systems using organic emitters, achieving visible organic phosphorescence under ambient conditions in lab for industrial translation is challenging. In a recent study, now published in Science Advances, Max Gmelch and colleagues at the Dresden University of Technology report a new milestone in organic luminescent labeling. For this, they used a simple device structure made from commonly available materials to generate ultrathin, flexible and transparent luminescent coatings. The resulting labeling device was fast, with ability to print more than 40 cycles of information onto any substrate of any size, at high resolution. The scientists used light alone, without any ink, to print a luminescent message onto the material. The contactless process could also erase the image from the same material. The concept represents a promising method to produce luminescent on-demand tags to store information and supersede conventional labeling techniques. In the study, Gmelch et al. used an ultrathin emitting material layer with a thickness of 900 nm, predominantly containing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) also known as acrylic glass. They included a guest molecule known as NPB (N,N’-di(1-napthyl)N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine), a commonly available hole transport material (charge extraction and transportation) used in organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology. The scientists engineered the thin translucent coating for luminescent labeling by combining the two materials (PMMA:NPB). Depending on the substrate of interest, the coating can also be used on a variety of different surfaces via spin coating, spray coating or dip coating. The values of light intensity and the time required for illumination presented in the study were far below those required by previous techniques, with potential for feasible industrial applications. The study also showed that an imperfect oxygen barrier could lead to the reappearance of oxygen in the activated areas in time. The length of time required for the disappearance of phosphorescence depended on the thickness of the oxygen barrier layer. For example, a spin-coated layer with a 600 nm thickness presented phosphorescence up to five hours, while those with thicker oxygen-barrier films (35 to 40 µm) extended the phenomenon to more than one day. The scientists could increase retention time frames with an improved barrier material or by further increasing the material thickness. To quickly erase a print, the scientists used oxygen refilling through accelerated sample heating with IR or a simple hotplate. As with printing, the time required for phosphorescence deletion depended on the barrier-layer thickness and temperature. © 2019 Science X Network The scientists tested a variety of substrate materials as surfaces for phosphorescence illumination. The work included customary photographs with the New York City skyline for large-area application. Since the emission coating was fully invisible when inactive, the materials served as a substrate for programmable on-demand caption projection. Gmelch et al further demonstrated the higher transparency of the coating compared with pure glass (1 mm). In this way, Gmelch et al. realized a fully accessible optical method for writing, reading and erasing on a material for information storage. The work showed the possibility of repeatable noncontact labeling and reading with a resolution beyond the commonly observed printer quality. Gmelch et al. propose the use of highly scalable processes for materials fabrication next. The readout resolution in the work was sufficient to store an information depth of 7 kB cm-2, which is equal to five pages of plain text. The technique opens a new path for information storage beyond permanent data encoding at low-cost and high scaling. The new work will have practical potential in the field of industrial logistics (labeling, tracking and transport). Journal information: Science Advances Image reading/erasing using UV light. After having finished the writing process, the mask is removed. Subsequent UV illumination of the whole sample only gives rise to phosphorescence at the activated area. Again, pulsed excitation with a frequency of 1 Hz is used. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310. More information: Max Gmelch et al. Programmable transparent organic luminescent tags, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7310 Patricia B. O’Hara et al. Turning on the Light: Lessons from Luminescence, Journal of Chemical Education (2009). DOI: 10.1021/ed082p49 Stephen R. Forrest. The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic, Nature (2004). DOI: 10.1038/nature02498 The phosphorescent images could be erased as fast and easily by applying infrared (IR) light of a wavelength of 4 µm for approximately one minute. In this instance, the radiation was absorbed by the PMMA, and the temperature increased approximately to about 90 degrees C to 100 degrees C, which was low enough to maintain thermal stability of all materials used in the study. Solidity of the material layers was well conserved during the whole process of erasing, while further write and erase cycles were subsequently allowed. Gmelch et al. observed the decreasing intensity of phosphorescence during each cycle due to photobleaching (degradation of emitter molecules) and oxygen consumption (due to increased nonradiative losses owing to matrix change). Yet, even after 40 cycles, the emission rate reached 40 percent of its initial value—sufficiently detectable by eye or camera. Citation: Programmable transparent organic luminescent tags–writing with light (2019, February 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-programmable-transparent-luminescent-tagswriting.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Kolkata: Chief Minister and Trinamool Congress supremo Mamata Banerjee launched a scathing attack on the Bharatiya Janata Party for changing the names of cities and institutions along with initiating demonetisation and playing a key role in altering the history and heritage of India.Speaking at the extended core committee meeting of the TMC at a jam-packed Netaji Indoor Stadium on Friday, Banerjee said: “They are history-changer, policy-changer, Planning Commission-changer, note-changer, institution-changer, but not a game-changer. They a party which is making attempts to change the Constitution and the Federal structure of the country.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe TMC chief further added that the country was in danger under the current dispensation. “They (BJP) project as if they have given birth to the nation but they were nowhere during Independence,” she added. The Chief Minister’s remark assumes significance as a few weeks ago the Yogi Adityanath government in Uttar Pradesh changed the names of two historical cities —Allahabad to Prayagraj and Faizabad to Ayodhya. Treading the same path as Adityanath, Gujarat Chief Minister Vijay Rupani too said that his government was planning to change the name of Ahmedabad to Karnavati. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe Trinamool supremo attacked the scheduled ‘Rath Yatra’ programme of the BJP in Bengal and termed it as ‘Ravan Yatra’, instructing her party for the cleansing of areas through which the saffron party’s chariots would pass. “Simply ignore such programmes as they are nothing else but a political gimmick. Theirs’ will be a ‘Rath’ propagating war. We will conduct ‘purification and unity yatra’ the very next day with the message of peace and harmony. There will be festoons with our slogan “BJP Hatao Desh Bachao,” she maintained. BJP’s Rath Yatra programme has been announced in Birbhum, Cooch Behar and South 24-Parganas in December. The Chief Minister termed the anti-BJP mega rally at the Brigade Parade Ground on January 19, 2019, as the ‘turning point’, and chalked out the roadmap for the 2019 Lok Sabha polls by dishing out a slew of instructions to her party members to strengthen “BJP hatao drive”. She announced that her party will contest in a number of states in Lok Sabha including Jharkhand and Assam. “All the national political parties except one or two have already confirmed their attendance at the Brigade rally. So you should remember that the mega rally will be a turning point. Delegates and supporters will be coming from states like Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Bihar, Assam, Tripura, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. It is our duty to ensure that they face no difficulty in our state,” Banerjee said. She announced that the formation of three separate committees comprising MLAs and MPs for taking charge of the accommodation of the delegates, their transportation, reception and most importantly, publicity of the rally. Urging her party members to pull up their socks for winning all the 42 seats in Bengal, she maintained that the TMC will fight from all major eastern and north-eastern states. According to Banerjee, her party will fight from Assam, Tripura, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Odisha, Bihar and even Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the coming Lok Sabha polls. She assigned responsibilities to a number of leaders for overseeing the party’s organisational strength in these states. “Dinesh Trivedi will be in-charge of Maharashtra,” she said. The TMC supremo also took a dig at the BJP for spending crores of money for election purpose. “We cannot spend so much money but we will have to have funds to fight the elections. The youth TMC should create an app and you should go for online donations in Rs 10, Rs 50, Rs 100 and Rs 1000 which will help us contest,” she added. Urging her party leaders to bring back those who had left it, she stated: “We have to work hard and unitedly.” Banerjee also warned her party leaders about BJP’s manipulation with the EVMs. She said her party workers should test the voting machines well as the “BJP wants to malfunction 40 percent of the total EVMs”.
Kolkata: The West Bengal State Handicrafts Expo will witness the participation of as many 80 artisans belonging to the Sabar community, for the first time this year.The expo, organised by the state MSME and Textiles department, was inaugurated by state MSME and Textile minister Amit Mitra on Wednesday, at a ground near Gate number 1 in Eco Park. The participation of the artisans from the Sabar community assumes significance as Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had recently made it clear that no person in the state has been suffering from starvation, after the Opposition had alleged that three people from the community had died due to ‘scarcity of food’. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has instructed us to expand the handicrafts fair and to rope in artisans from remote villages to showcase their products. Many artisans from the Sabar community are participating in the fair for the first time,” Mitra said in his inaugural speech. He added that craftsmen from the state have participated in as many as 62 state-level fairs where they have showcased their handicrafts. They were also provided the opportunity to participate in as many as 10 fairs held at the national-level, as well as some international fairs. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedMitra said that the state government has provided artisan card to 1.22 lakh persons, on the basis of which loans of Rs 406 crore have been provided. The banks have allocated a loan of Rs 34 crore to 11,092 artisans. The minister urged the chambers of commerce who attended the programme, to help the MSME department in setting up a state-of-the-art design centre for more support to the artisans. 22,000 self-help groups are participating in the expo this year, which will be held till January 9. Swapan Debnath, minister of state for MSME and Textiles department and Alapan Banyopadhyay, state Additional Chief Secretary of MSME and Textiles department, also attended the inaugural programme.
Slow down ageing, reduce the risk of heart diseases and diabetes — these are some reasons why it is important to consume antioxidant-rich foods like dark chocolates, nuts, kidney beans, cranberries and tomatoes, suggest experts. 4The reason that antioxidants are often touted as “anti-aging” compounds is because they help protect from age-related diseases, which are caused in part by free radicals and inflammation. Antioxidants such as alpha lipoic and others found in pine bark and green tea. They produce valuable anti-inflammatory results by increasing circulation and cell metabolism. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf4Different antioxidants benefit different parts of the body: Beta carotene is beneficial to eye health. Lycopene is beneficial for helping prostate health. Flavonoids are beneficial for heart health. Spirulina has a variety of antioxidants and other substances that are beneficial in boosting immunity. It helps in enhancing both the non- specific and specific immune system.4A diet rich in antioxidants is important to keep the level of ageing low and in maintenance of good health. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveAnti-inflammatory effects: Antioxidants in your morning tea and coffee may help prevent heart disease. Antioxidant Polyphenol found in tea and coffee helps in preventing oxidation of fats (a process that promotes inflammation and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other ailments).Immune booster: Antioxidants are present in fruits. Vitamin A, C and E, polyphenols and certain minerals like selenium, that boost immune system are there in fruits.
At Wonderwall in the India Art Fair were two stunning black and white photographs which together offer a succinct summary of a narrative arc, which unfolds just inside. The hand behind the shutter belongs to the legendary S. Paul who passed away last year.Fascinating is Camels with their Master 1995 archival print on paper. It reflects how naturally and lucidly Paul captured images that had within a hint of history as well as a stamp of socio-cultural ferment when he shot images, that chronicled the sights he would see on his epoch-making journeys anywhere in India – this one being on the roads in Rajasthan. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfaul was always inspired by the presence of nomads, everyday citizens that he saw on the streets — what marks this image is that it is candid and captivating, it makes for a beautiful, narrative of naturality.The second photograph, taken in Delhi, ‘The Resting Family 1995’ captures the humility of a family – the little boy (the picture of innocence), the father, the mother – all looking straight into the aperture without a hint of self-consciousness gives us an idea of the sense of comfort that the photographer Paul was able to instill in his subjects when he captured them. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe posture of both the male and female subjects is full of candour; while the male has his legs lifted on the long seat, the female is the picture of feminine grace in her printed sari in reverie in a sideways pose.Of course, both camels, as well as street scenes, are subjects that have been so extensively photographed their depiction might border on cliché if not for the fact that Paul had a clear-eyed, pristine idea of imagery and subject composition to render them almost otherworldly. Both images speak to us about life, the crystalline imagery captures the fine-boned anatomical details of the camels and also the sensation that the viewer has stumbled into scenes of absolute delight.his gentle push-and-pull between strangeness and the familiar pervades the two images; and is the thematic tenet that holds the viewer aligned with time and space. The expressive eyes of all three humans in both images ink the truth that it is simplicity and traditional materials that root the moment in the composite characters of what is distinct as well as proportional in a sense of comfort and camaraderie between the photographer and his subjects. The beauty of these two works is that they define S. Paul as a giant who could give us images that would stand beyond time – as they defined the truth and clarity of a clearly filtered moment that could capture and live through an Indian imagination long after they were captured.